сряда, 7 март 2012 г.


The Zohar, or Sefer ha-zohar, meaning “The Book of Splendor

,” is considered
the central work in Jewish mysticism, as well as the most influential
work of the Cabala. Its compilation is attributed to Shim’on bar
Yoh’ai, although its true author is Mosheh de Leon (1240–1305), a
Castilian cabalist who wrote it during the last third of the thirteenth
century. The Zohar joined the Bible and Talmud in the triad of the
most sacred books of Judaism.
The Zohar was written mostly in Aramaic and presents an elaborate
mystical system that considerably influenced the later evolution
of Jewish mysticism through its mythical conceptions on cabalistic
theosophy. Mosheh de Leon wrote the main part of the Zohar, which
circulated in manuscript and was published in 1558 in Mantua and
Cremona, whereas the rest was written by a later anonymous cabalist
early in the fourteenth century. The latter part differs from the first
both in style and in its cabalistic concepts.
The Zohar presents five central myths: the myth of the cosmogonical
process, the initial evolvement of the ten sefiroth from the eternal
Godhead; the myth of the dynamic interrelationship within the realm
of the Divine emanations; the sexual symbolic myth of the relationship
between the masculine and feminine elements in the Divine world, the
latter represented by the Shekinah; the myth of the struggle between
the holy Divine realm on the right and the evil system on the left; the
messianic myth and the apocalyptic description of the redemption.
Jewish mysticism has given considerable consideration to angels,
grouping them into categories such as angels of severe judgment and
angels of mercy, as well as evil and ministering angels. Like other mystical
texts, the Zohar assigns specific heavenly roles to angels and
arranges them into various hierarchies: these angels, representing
spiritual powers of the finest and ethereal substance, may assume
human form or may appear as spirits when they execute their missions
on earth. Furthermore, according to the Zohar, the good angels came
into being on the first day of Creation and enjoy eternal life, whereas
the others, who rebelled against God and were consumed by fire, were
created on the second day of Creation. The angels live in the seven
heavenly halls, the heikhalot, and a special hall is set aside for a certain
type of angel that mourns the destruction of the Temple.
According to the Zohar, every human comes into the world with
a good angel and a bad one, and when he dies, he is met by angels of
peace or destruction depending upon his deeds on earth. Angels know
the future of mankind, which is made known in heaven by a herald. In
addition, every day angels are sent to Earth with special missions:
some serve the human body, whereas others serve the soul. According
to the Zohar the first encounter between the angels and man took
place when the mysterious Book of Heaven was handed to Adam
through Raziel, Hadraniel, and Raphael.

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